Morphologische indizien für das unmittelbare schwestergruppenverhältnis der Schizophora mit den Syrphoidea (’Aschiza’) in der phylogenetischen systematik der Cyclorrhapha (Diptera: Brachycera). [Morphological evidence for the direct sister group rel

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:1991
Authors:S. Wada
Journal:Journal of Natural History
Keywords:Aschiza, Brachycera, comparative morphology, compound eye, Cyclorrhapha, Diptera, phylogenetic, phylogeny, Pipunculidae, relationship, retina, Schizophora, Syrphoidea, Systematics, taxonomy

The phylogenetic relationships of the Schizophora with the families of the Aschiza were investigated on the basis of synapomorphies. Depending on the family, the sensory epithelium of the retinae of the compound eyes of flies consists either of populations of 2 ommatidial elements or of uniform ommatidia: duotype and monotype, respectively. Within the Cyclorrhapha, the monotype occurs exclusively in the Schizophora and Syrphoidea (= Syrphidae + Pipunculidae), whereas the duotype occurs in the remaining Aschiza. These 2 types form a plesio-apomorphous pair: on the basis of character state analysis the duotype was regarded as plesiomorphous and the monotype proved to be a synapomorphy of the Schizophora and Syrphoidea. The retinal pair was accorded a high relevance as an indicator of the the phylogenetic relationships in Cyclorrhapha owing to its special morphology and the very low probability of a parallel development of the apomorphous monotype. In this paper, the hypothesis of W. Hennig (1976) that the dorsobasal arista on the antennal flagellum in the Schizophora and Syrphoidea is a synapomorphy compared to the original apical arista was confirmed on the basis of literature studies. The monophyly of these 2 groups together, and their sister group relationship, were demonstrated in an argumentation scheme. 3 alterations of the conventional systematics of the Cyclorrhapha were undertaken: (a) the term ’Eumuscomorpha’ is introduced to designate a new monophyletic taxon of the Schizophora and Syrphoidea. (b) The remaining groups of the Aschiza are temporarily subsumed in a ’superfamily Platypezoidea’ owing to their manifestation of complementary symplesiomorphous characteristics. Until its phylogenetic character (monophyly or paraphyly) is unequivocally clarified, it remains an ’artificial’ entity. (c) The term ’Aschiza’ is for a taxon of the genealogical system no longer applicable.

Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith